Ajax Client Architecture


                Browsers call Web service methods by using proxy classes. A proxy class is a script that is automatically generated by the server and downloaded to the browser at page-load time. The proxy class provides a client object that represents the exposed methods of a Web service. To call a Web service method, client script calls the corresponding methods of the proxy class. The calls are made asynchronously, through the XMLHTTP object. The Web service communication layer contains the library script types that enable the proxy classes to make service calls. For more information, see the classes that are contained in the Sys.Net namespace. The code in the proxy classes and in the core Web service communication layer hides the complexity of XMLHTTP and the differences between browsers. This simplifies the client script that is required to call the Web service.

There are two approaches to making a Web service request:

·         Call Web services by using the HTTP POST verb. A POST request has a body that contains the data that the browser sends to the server. It does not have a size limitation. Therefore, you can use a POST request when the size of the data exceeds the intrinsic size limitation for a GET request. The client serializes the request into JSON format and sends it as POST data to the server. The server deserializes the JSON data into .NET Framework types and makes the actual Web service call. During the response, the server serializes the return values and passes them back to the client, which deserializes them into JavaScript objects for processing.

·         Call Web services by using the HTTP GET verb. This resembles the functionality of a POST request, with the following differences:

o        The client uses a query string to send the parameters to the server.

o  A GET request can call only a Web service method that is configured by using the ScriptMethodAttribute attribute.

o        Data size is limited to the URL length allowed by the browser.


The following illustration shows the ASP.NET AJAX client architecture.

AJAX Client Architecture



     Elements of the client architecture include the Web service communication layer in the core library and the downloaded proxy classes for the services that are used on the page. Individual elements shown in the figure are as follows:

·         Custom Service Proxy Classes. These consist of client script that is automatically generated by the server and downloaded to the browser. The proxy classes provide an object for each WCF or ASMX service that is used in the page. (That is, they provide an object for each item in the ServiceReferences element of the ScriptManager control in the page.) Calling a proxy method in client script creates an asynchronous request to the corresponding Web service method on the server.

·         Authentication Proxy Class. The AuthenticationService proxy class is generated by the server authentication application service. It enables the user to log on or log out through JavaScript in the browser without making a round trip to the server.

·         Role Proxy Class. The RoleService proxy class is generated by the server roles application service. It enables you to group users and treat each group as a unit through JavaScript without making round trips to the server. This can be useful to enable or deny access to resources on the server.

·         Profile Proxy Class. The ProfileService class is generated by the server profile application service. It makes the current user's profile information available to the client through JavaScript without making round trips to the server.

·         Page Methods Proxy Class. This provides the scripting infrastructure for client script to call static methods in an ASP.NET page as if they were Web service methods. 

·         Web Service Communication Layer. This is the library that contains the client script types. These types enable the browser (client) to communicate with the services on the server. They also shield client applications from the complexities of establishing and maintaining the asynchronous communication between client and server. They encapsulate the browser XMLHTTP object that provides the asynchronous capability, and enable client applications to be browser independent. The following are the main elements of the Web service communication layer:

o  WebRequest. This provides client script functionality to make a Web request. For more information, see the WebRequest class.

o    WebRequestManager. This manages the flow of the Web requests issued by the WebRequest object to the associated executor object. For more information, see the WebRequestManager class.

o  XmlHttpExecutor. This makes asynchronous network requests by using the browser's XMLHTTP support. For more information, see the XmlHttpExecutor class.

o   JSON Serialization. This serializes JavaScript objects into JSON format. Deserialization is available by using the JavaScript eval function. For more information, see the JavaScriptSerializer class.

The default serialization format is JSON, but individual methods in Web services and in ASP.NET Web pages can return alternative formats such as XML. The serialization format of a method can be specified with attributes. For example, for an ASMX service, you can set the ScriptMethodAttribute attribute to cause a Web service method to return XML data, as shown in the following example:

Example in C# :

[ScriptMethod(ResponseFormat.Xml)] 
 
<ScriptMethod(ResponseFormat.Xml)>